Pre-AP Biology Notes

How do we turn one Chromosome into 2 Chromatids?

Structure of the DNA Molecule
We don’t really copy DNA, we use the semi conservative model.


The red fox ran out the car.
The red fex ran out the car.
The red foxy ran out the car.
The red fo ran out the car.

1. Nuclear Envelope is digested.
2.Chromosomes condense.
3. DNA spread out and becomes Chromatin.
4. Metaphase – Chromosomes line up in the equator of the cell.
5. Anaphase: Chromatin becomes 2 chromosomes.

Prophase: Chromosomes appear, nuclear envelope disappears.

Daughter Chromosomes:

There is a huge test on Monday with a rating 3.Q1 will be Cell cycle, describe the steps and the checkpoints, and say what will happen if there was no checkpoints.Q2 will be to draw the mitosis and describe the steps.

Anaphase: Have 92 Chromosomes.

Checkpoints: Proteins.

By the end of metaphase, chromosomes are lined up by the equator.
By the end of prophase all the chromosomes are appeared.

Law of Independent Assortment
Crossing Over
Chromatin is arranged into Chromosomes.
Chromatin becomes chromosomes arranging two Chromatics.
We have sex for variations.
If everyone was same, we could die off from one disease.

3 differences
1. 4 instead of 2
2. 4 daughter cells are different
3. Haploid to diploid.

Crossing over
Law of independent assortment
Law of segregation

Energy: Available power.
Water: tasteless, odorless, transparent liquid that is a compound of hydrogen and oxygen, that includes two hydrogen and one oxygen.
Balance: state of equilibrium.

Power: capacity of doing something.
Tasteless: having no taste.
Odorless: having no smell.
Transparent: having no color.
Compound: composed of two or more parts.
Hydrogen: chemical that has the atomic number of 1, best energy source in the universe.
Oxygen: chemical that has the atomic number of 8, about 1/5 of the volume of the atmosphere. Tasteless, odorless, and transparent.
Equilibrium: equal powers.

Carbohydrate is a polymer that is made of many sugar monomers.

Critical Thinking: Rubric
25% Scientific Content
25% Presentation
25% How you present
25% Group Corporation

No.1 Photosynthesis
No.2 Respiration
No.3 Cell Cycle

1. Why does a cell do this?
2. How does it do it?
3. What or where does the cell do this work?
4. What happens if we don’t do this to the cell.

Alkaline : English word for base
Catalase is a catalyst, it is an enzyme that changes the rate of chemical reaction
Zygote: sperm and egg coming together.
RNA: type of a chemical, that includes
Ribose: type of sugar
Protist: eukaryotic that is not an animal plant or insect.
Homeostasis: keeping the cell on the same place.
Dialysis tubing: plastic which has small hole that lets enzyme happen in it.
Capillary action: when liquid moves up in a very thin tube.
Organic: things reproduced by alive animals.
Dilute: adding water to make it Hyperthonic.
Polysaccharides: many sugar
Cholesterol – a bad fat.

Cell Cycle:
G1. Cell grows. and reaches Checkpoint that stops the growth, without checkpoint the cell will become too big and will die.
S Phase: We are copying DNA.
It is like human life. We grow about 50% from 1 to 2 years old, and we grow the other 50% by the other 18 years.
G2. Second Growth phase, we are growing the proteins that we use to split the copied DNA.
Mitosis: Splitting the Nucleus.
Cytokinesis: Split the cell by twisting it like a balloon.

Where else do we need a checkpoint?
G1 (Checkpoint) The cell will become too big that will become too big that will die off.

S Phase (No Checkpoint) We don’t need checkpoints because if it stops copying the DNA, we will not be able to give DNA to the new cells, which will make us useless.

G2 (Checkpoint) There must be a checkpoint because if there was no checkpoint to the growth of the protein, it will again become too big, and like G1, it needs a checkpoint.

Mitosis (Checkpoint) There must be checkpoint because it will grow too much.

Cytokinesis (No checkpoint) There should be no checkpoint because we need the cells to keeping making it self more, because if it stops.

3 types of cancer
1. Huge cells, useless.
2. Hard packed proteins, useless
3. Small, and a lot of cells.

microscope. (Don’t touch len). Only use the red light, using the big one to bring it up and down. Move to the yellow lens clockwise.
1. put the eye caps on.
2. Stage should be Down.
3. Red lens must be in.
4. Put use thing on the slide.
5. Place the slide onto the middle of the light source.

1. What is Histidine and Kinase? Why does it have the same A?
2. What is the Pi sticking the the Histidine and Kinase?
3. What is a Motor?
4. What is a Methylation Enzyme? Adds a chemical to methylate, or highlight which ones to rap up, etc.
5. What is a Response Regulator?
6. Why is there square and a circle ligand? What is a ligand?

In Signal Transduction, Communication is happening.

Duction: To make something happen

Transduction: To make something happen across.

Signal Transduction: To move Information making something happen across the cell membrane.

Nothing actually travels across the cell membrane in a second messenger system.

Signal Molecules are not atoms, they are big molecules.

Ligand = Somethings that binds a receptor protein in a cell membrane.

GTP is exactly the same thing with the ATP, but the adenosine is genes.

Kinase: We are taking a P (phosphate) from something, and putting it on to something else.

LBS (Ligand Binding Site)

Dimer: Formed by 2 Receptor Proteins.

How do we get information from the outside world

1. From TV, which works by sending information to us from the screen, which is working out by the TV company sending us the signal thorough the antenna, and displays on the screen, giving us information.

2. From Newspaper, which works by the newspaper company such as the bangkok times, etc. sending us the paper to us in our posts every morning, which is filled with information. We get information by reading that paper.

3. From Magazines, which works by the magazine companies creating magazines, sending them to bookstores,and we buying off bookstores.

4. From the Internet, such as Facebook, twitter, tumblr, etc. This work by people from the world putting info. On the Internet,and we checking it.

5. From radios, this works by us listening to the radio, which is sounds sent by the same way of TV, which is sent by the antenna.

6. From Mobile Phone or Telephone calls, working by the person calling us sending the signal of voice, coming to us, and we replying.

7.From Messages (Letter, or Online Messages) working by person typing or writing a message, sending it to us by the internet, or the mail.

Mass Communication – Communicate to large amount of people. (Eg. Radio, TV,etc.)

Direct: Newspaper, Magazine, Advertisement Letters.
Indirect: TV, Radio, Internet

Individual Signal – To communicate to you alone. Neurons communicate and

Direct: Telephone calls, Letter
Indirect: Mobile Phone calls, Online Messages.

Finger: 1 wrong for fingers
Cheek: All correct
Arm: All wrong
Back: 1 correct for back

1. Cheek
2. Fingers
3. Back
4. Arm

Cell to Cell communication is where one cell sends a message from one to another by passing through the cell membrane by diffusion. H+ moves from high to low concentration, reaching the critical point. In Cell to Cell communication, Signal molecules diffuse across the cell membranes, and delivers the message directly. Gamete + Gamete = Blastula. There is gaps between neurons. What would happen if there was no gaps between neurons? If there is no gaps, you will feel pain for anything, so if the gaps were bigger, action potentials will jump further, not feeling more pain. Brain cells die the first in any animals.

Hormones are signals that travel through the blood on their way to target cells, hormones does not pass through the cell membrane, they go through by the receptors, like UVC TV. Hormones can send one signal to many cells, and each cell can have many responses.

Mass Direct: 5 sense is the good example of the mass direct movement. Body Coordination is another good example. Your left and right leg is synchronizing, letting us work. Body Coordination is our body parts synchronizing.(Breathing, digesting)

Mass Direct Real Life: Internet, Poster, Newspaper, Books, Letter, Radio

Spinal Code: Sometimes brain doesn’t give decisions. Spinal Code gives decision when it is emergency.

It doesn’t react! It causes a reaction but itself doesn’t react.
It brings in 2 things together. It can bring up 2 things, and stick it with one, so it is not like a key and a lock. Enzymes changes shape = Denatured. To denature enzyme means to change shape. Enzymes has an optimum (favorite). Outside of its optimum, its denatured. We can renature, putting it back to the original shape, from the denatured shape. There is an enzyme called pepsinogen. Peptide = Protein, pepsinogen is an enzyme that breaks dow n all proteins. Pepsinogen doesn’t work outside the stomach, but when it goes into the stomach the Ph changes the Pepsinogen into Pepsin, and it will work. It digests protein. And when it goes outside the stomach, the Ph outside changed the pepsin and brings it back to pepsinogen.

Solvent: Liquid that dissolves the solute.
Solute: solid that dissolves in liquid.
Solution = Solvent + Solute

Hypothonic = More solvent then solute.
Hyperthonic= More solute then solvent.
Isotonic= Same amount of salt and water,etc.

Selectively Permeable: Allowing something to get through, and to not allow to something to get in.

What does Cell membrane let in the cell all the time?

1. Water
2. Oxygen
3. Zinc
4. Carbon Dioxide
5. Nutrients (foods,etc.)
6. Light
7. Salt
8. Glucose
9. Waste
11. Calcium
12. Iron
13. Vitamins

What Cell should block from leaving or coming in
1. Large Particles
2. Large Molecule
3. Antibiotics * some can go in
4. Virus
5. DNA *can’t come out

Avogadro – said cant count atoms.
Avogadro’s concept – 6 times 10, 23
with Avogadro’s concept it makes 1 mole, or 1m.
We are looking 6 times 10, 23 to find molecules.
Molecular Weight of glucose = 128.16 grams
put that in water u have 1 mole concentration of glucose.
To find the molecular weight, put it in a beaker in a water.
Make an one molar concentration of water.
Make it 100ml not IL, so divide by 10.
How to make 1 molar concentration, divide the solution by 10.

Concentration of Solution Unit = mole

0.0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1

gatorade and other sports drinks are just water mixed with sugar and salt.

%mass change = mass after soaking – mass before divide by 100.
Why use Glucose? Salt will cause extra forces we don’t want. Glucose doesn’t have any charges, so it wont interact with the water, so nothing will push or pull the water. We are using glucose to control the other forces.

Lab Structure
Scientists has or needs a purpose.
What am I going to learn from the experiment? Why am I doing the experiment?
Each level give you the next level.
Make a hypothesis and think what you need to do.If the first hypothesis is wrong, make a new hypothesis.Make a new procedure.
Make a conclusion and find a better way.

We start with a purpose = give us hypothesis = procedure = results = conclusion, analysis
Not what you know, what you give.
Purpose and procedure is massively important.

Purpose of people or cells require water
1. Detoxicates
2. Cleans
3. Transportation of food.
4. Gives mineral
5. Creates energy.
6. Controls the temperature of body.


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